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The Complete Dream Book

If you dream thai a monarch abdicates his throne, it is a sign of war.

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

One of the most frequent dream themes is that of anxiety in some form. This may not be because most dreams are about things we fear, but simply because we re­member those dreams more than a bland dream. In our dreams the things we fear are only our own feelings. Of course, the dream may be about a snake, or car accident—things we fear which are not inside us. Even so, it is our feeling about the snake or situation which disturbs us, and these can change, even though the snake remains just what it is.

If we cannot meet our feelings of fear or emotional pain we are controlled or trapped by them. Sometimes we need the help of a professional therapist to meet what we fear, but many fears can be met by using simple techniques. See woljunder animal, dream processing, premenstrual tension.

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Little Giant Encyclopedia

These are usually a sign of much activity during the day (less often, a suggestion to be more active). In contrast, being an observer in the dream means to be less passive. These dreams may also point to too much stress, indicating that your life has become too frantic. Try to determine whether you see yourself as being very active in the dream or if you seem to be disappearing from view.

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Islamic Dream Interpretation

Calling out the athaan in words unknown to the caller suggests that he is a great thief.

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

Gnffith, Miyago and Tago give 34 types of dream themes, from falling to being hung by the neck.

For the lay dreamer it is more useful to put dreams into much broader categories such as psychological. ESP, body, sexual, spiritual and problem solving. In researching the data for this book, some special cluster of dream themes were no­ticed.

For instance a cluster was noted in women past middle age, they dreamt of walking in a town and losing their hus­band. Description of these clusters can be seen in son and husband under family; losing teeth under body; flying; secret room under house; dead people; individuation. See also dream as meeting place; dream as spiritual guide; dream as therapist and healer; sex in dreams; ESP in dreams.

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Dream Fairy

Christian Dreams Interpretations available here.

This dictionary of Christian Dreams contains over 13500 indexed entries and this dictionary.

Christian Dream Meaning

Interpretation for Christian Dreams Symbols.

Dream Analysis and Interpretation.

Understand the meaning of your dreams. Great dictionary of dream interpretations.

Christian Dream Symbols

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

Because of the ease with which computers can file, son, cross reference and present informa­tion, a great deal of work has been done in analysing the content of thousands of dreams (The Content Analysis oj Dreams, Hall and Van De Castle). As computers are an every­day pan of many homes, we can easily use them to gain insight into our own dreams. Two areas of help are as follows.

We can enter many dreams, then with a program such as Seeker or Masterfile, easily scan through them to see the fre­quency of dream themes. This approach to dreams—self in­sight through a series of dreams—is explained by Hall in The Meaning of Dreams. Important issues in our life and develop­ment occur as frequent dream themes, and are easily seen using a computer.

The program Brainstonn (Brainstorm Software Ltd) makes cross referencing dream symbols and associated comments easy. Using this program, if one dreamt of a tree and wrote one s associations, then six months later dreamt of a tree and entered this, the program instantly reminds you of the past reference to tree and can display it. Gradually a reference base of your own dreams and comments can be built up and quickly scanned. Such comparisons help to form a personality profile of yourself or others.

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My Dream Interpretation

To dream that you are able to control the action in your dreams, indicates your growing confidence, high self-esteem and increasing skills. Alternatively, this type of dream may be a way of compensating for a waking situation in which you felt powerless.

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Little Giant Encyclopedia

When people of antiquity had dreams of strange cosmic events, like fire raining down from heaven, comets, etc., they would report them to the Areopagus in Athens or to the Senate in Rome. According to Jung, such dreams meant that the dreamer was being prepared for a position in government.

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

Few dreams are, by themselves, problem solving or creative.

The few excep­tions are usually very clear. Example: ‘My mother-in-law died of cancer. I had watched the whole progression of her illness, and was very upset by her death. Shortly after she died the relatives gathered and began to sort through her belongings to share them out. That was the climax of my upset and distress, and I didn’t want any part of this sorting and taking her things. That night I dreamt I was in a room with all the relatives. They were sorting her things, and I felt my waking distress. Then my mother-in-law came into the room. She was very real and seemed happy. She said for me not to be upset as she didn’t at all mind her relatives taking her things. When I woke from the dream all the anxiety and upset had disap­peared. It never returned (told to author dunng a talk given to the Housewives Register in Ilfracombe).

Although in any collection of dreams such clearcut prob­lem solving is fairly rare, nevertheless the basic function in dreams appears to be problem solving.

The proof of this lies in research done in dream withdrawal. As explained in the entry science, sleep and dreams, subjects are woken up as they begin to dream, therefore denying them dreams. This quickly leads to disorientation and breakdown of normal functioning, showing that a lot of problem solving occurs in dreams, even though it may not be as obvious as in the exam­ple. This feature of dreaming can be enhanced to a marked degree by processing dreams and arriving at insights into the information they contain. This enables old problems to be cleared up and new information and attitudes to be brought into use more quickly. Through such active work one be­comes aware of the self, which Carl Jung describes as a cen­tre, but which we might think of as a synthesis of all our experience and being. Gaining insight and allowing the self entrance into our waking affairs, as M L. Von Franz says in Man and His Symbols, gradually produces a wider and more mature personality’ which emerges, and by degrees becomes effective and even visible to others’.

The function of dreams may well be described as an effort on the part of our life process to support, augment and help mature waking consciousness.

A study of dreams suggests that the creative forces which are behind the growth of our body are also inextricably connected with psychological develop­ment. In fact, when the process of physical growth stops, the psychological growth continues.

If this is thwarted in any way, it leads to frustration, physical tension and psychosomatic and eventually physical illness.

The integration of experience.

which dreams are always attempting, if successful cannot help but lead to personal growth. But it is often frozen by the individual avoiding the growing pains’, or the discomfon of breaking through old concepts and beliefs.

Where there is any attempt on the pan of our conscious personality to co-operate with this, the creative aspect of dreaming emerges. In fact anything we are deeply involved in, challenged by or attempting, we will dream about in a creative way. Not only have communities like the American Indians used dreams in this manner—to find better hunting, solve community problems, find a sense of personal life direction— but scientists, writers, designers and thousands of lay people have found very real information in dreams After all, through dreams we have personal use of the greatest computer ever produced in the history of the world—the human brain.

1- In Genesis 41, the story of Pharaoh’s dream is told—the seven fat cows and the seven thin cows. This dream was creative in that, with Joseph’s interpretation, it resolved a national problem where famine followed years of plenty. It may very well be an example of gathered information on the history of Egypt being in the mind of Pharaoh, and the dream putting it together in a problem solving way. See dream process as computer.

2- William Blake dreamt his dead brother showed him a new way of engraving copper. Blake used the method success­fully.

3- Otto Leowi dreamt of how to prove that nervous impulses were chemical rather than electncal. This led to his Nobel prize.

4- Friedrich Kekule tned for years to define the structure of benzene. He dreamt of a snake with its tail in its mouth, and woke to realise this explained the molecular forma­tion of the benzene ring. He was so impressed he urged colleagues, ‘Gentlemen, leam to dream.’

5- Hilprecht had an amazing dream of the connection be­tween two pieces of agate which enabled him to translate an ancient Babylonian inscription.

6- Elias Howe faced the problem of how to produce an effec­tive sewing machine.

The major difficulty was the needle. He dreamt of natives shaking spears with holes in their points. This led to the invention of the Singer sewing ma­chine.

7- Robert Louis Stevenson claims to have dreamt the plot of many of his stories.

8- Albert Einstein said that during adolescence he dreamt he was riding a sledge. It went faster and faster until it reached the speed of light.

The stars began to change into amazing patterns and colours, dazzling and beautiful. His meditation on that dream throughout the years led to the theory of relativity.

To approach our dreams in order to discover their creativity, first decide what problematic or creative aspect of your life needs ‘dream power’. Define what you have already leamt or know about the problem. Write it down, and from this clarify what it is you want more insight into.

If this breaks down into several issues, choose one at a time. Think about the issue and pursue it as much as you can while awake. Read about it, ask people’s opinions, gather information. This is all data for the dream process.

If the question still needs further insight, be­fore going to sleep imagine you are putting the question to your internal store of wisdom, computer, power centre, or whatever image feels right.

For some people an old being who is neither exclusively man nor woman is a working image.

In the morning note down whatever dream you remember. It does not matter if the dream does not appear to deal with the question; Elias Howe’s native spears were an outlandish image, but nevertheless contained the information he needed. Investigate the dream using the techniques given in the entry dream processing. Some problems take time to define, so use the process until there is a resolution.

If it is a major problem, it may take a year or so; after all, some resolutions need re­structuring of the personality, because the problem cannot disappear while we still have the same attitudes and fears. See secret of the universe dreams; dream processing.

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

Example: ‘My husband’s mother, no longer alive, came and slid her arms carefully under me and lifted me up. I shouted “Put me down! Put me down! I don’t want to go yet.” She carefully lowered me on to the bed and disappeared’ (EH). Most dreams in which dead people appear are expressive of our attempts to deal with our feelings, guilt or anger in connection with the person who died, or our own feelings about death. In the example the dreamer is feeling fear about being carried off by death.

When someone close to us dies we go through a period of change from relating to them as an external reality, to meeting and accepting them as alive in our memories and inner life. In the next example the man has not only come to terms with his mother’s and his own death, but also found this inner reality. Example: A dark grey sugar loaf form materialised. This pillar lightened in shade as I watched. It didn’t move. I began to think it was Mrs Molten who died in 1956.

The feeling grew stronger but still the colour lightened. Then it bent over and kissed my head. In that instant I knew it was my mother.

An ecstatic joy and happiness such as I have never known on earth suffused me. That happiness remained constantly in mind for the next few days’ (Mr M).

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

One hundred and forty dreams were collected from a group of patients suffering depression.

The same number of dreams were collected from people simi­lar in age and social background, but not suffering depression.

The dreams were given code numbers, mixed and given to an independent judge. He was asked to look for any evident themes of self punishment, such as ‘I was waiting for my friends all night but they never turned up’, ‘my fiance married somebody else’. Such self punishing themes were found to occur with greater frequency in the depressives’ dreams.

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About Dream Interpretation

The Scientific Literature of Dream-Problems I shall begin by giving a short account of the views of earlier writers on this subject and of the status of the dream-problem in contemporary science; since in the course of this treatise, I shall not often have occasion to refer to either. In spite of thousands of years of endeavour, little progress has been made in the scientific understanding of dreams. This fact has been so universally acknowledged by previous writers on the subject that it seems hardly necessary to quote individual opinions.

The reader will find, in many stimulating observations, and plenty of interesting material relating to our subject, but little or nothing that concerns the true nature of the dream, or that solves definitely any of its enigmas.

The educated layman, of course, knows even less of the matter. The conception of the dream that was held in prehistoric ages by primitive peoples, and the influence which it may have exerted on the formation of their conceptions of the universe, and of the soul, is a theme of such great interest that it is only with reluctance that I refrain from dealing with it in these pages. I will refer the reader to the well-known works of Sir John Lubbock (Lord Avebury), Herbert Spencer, E. B. Tylor and other writers; I will only add that we shall not realise the importance of these problems and speculations until we have completed the task of dream interpretation that lies before us. A reminiscence of the concept of the dream that was held in primitive times seems to underlie the evaluation of the dream which was current among the peoples of classical antiquity.[1] They took it for granted that dreams were related to the world of the supernatural beings in whom they believed, and that they brought inspirations from the gods and demons. Moreover, it appeared to them that dreams must serve a special purpose in respect of the dreamer; that, as a rule, they predicted the future.

The extraordinary variations in the content of dreams, and in the impressions which they produced on the dreamer, made it, of course, very difficult to formulate a coherent conception of them, and necessitated manifold differentiations and group-formations, according to their value and reliability.

The valuation of dreams by the individual philosophers of antiquity naturally depended on the importance which they were prepared to attribute to manticism in general. In the two works of Aristotle in which there is mention of dreams, they are already regarded as constituting a problem of psychology. We are told that the dream is not god-sent, that it is not of divine but of daimonic origin.

For nature is really daimonic, not divine; that is to say, the dream is not a supernatural revelation, but is subject to the laws of the human spirit, which has, of course, a kinship with the divine.

The dream is defined as the psychic activity of the sleeper, inasmuch as he is asleep. Aristotle was acquainted with some of the characteristics of the dream-life; for example, he knew that a dream converts the slight sensations perceived in sleep into intense sensations (‘one imagines that one is walking through fire, and feels hot, if this or that part of the body becomes only quite slightly warm’), which led him to conclude that dreams might easily betray to the physician the first indications of an incipient physical change which escaped observation during the day.[2] As has been said, those writers of antiquity who preceded Aristotle did not regard the dream as a product of the dreaming psyche, but as an inspiration of divine origin, and in ancient times, the two opposing tendencies which we shall find throughout the ages in respect of the evaluation of the dream-life, were already perceptible.

The ancients distinguished between the true and valuable dreams which were sent to the dreamer as warnings, or to foretell future events, and the vain, fraudulent and empty dreams, whose object was to misguide him or lead him to destruction. The pre-scientific conception of the dream which obtained among the ancients was, of course, in perfect keeping with their general conception of the universe, which was accustomed to project as an external reality that which possessed reality only in the life of the psyche. Further, it accounted for the main impression made upon the waking life by the morning memory of the dream; for in this memory the dream, as compared with the rest of the psychic content, seems to be something alien, coming, as it were, from another world. It would be an error to suppose that the theory of the supernatural origin of dreams lacks followers even in our own times; for quite apart from pietistic and mystical writers -- who cling, as they are perfectly justified in doing, to the remnants of the once predominant realm of the supernatural until these remnants have been swept away by scientific explanation -- we not infrequently find that quite intelligent persons, who in other respects are averse to anything of a romantic nature, go so far as to base their religious belief in the existence and co-operation of superhuman spiritual powers on the inexplicable nature of the phenomena of dreams (Haffner).

The validity ascribed to the dream life by certain schools of philosophy -- for example, by the school of Schelling -- is a distinct reminiscence of the undisputed belief in the divinity of dreams which prevailed in antiquity; and for some thinkers, the mantic or prophetic power of dreams is still a subject of debate. This is due to the fact that the explanations attempted by psychology are too inadequate to cope with the accumulated material, however strongly the scientific thinker may feel that such superstitious doctrines should be repudiated. To write a history of our scientific knowledge of the dream problem is extremely difficult, because, valuable though this knowledge may be in certain respects, no real progress in a definite direction is as yet discernible. No real foundation of verified results has hitherto been established on which future investigators might continue to build. Every new author approaches the same problems afresh, and from the very beginning.

If I were to enumerate such authors in chronological order, giving a survey of the opinions which each has held concerning the problems of the dream, I should be quite unable to draw a clear and complete picture of the present state of our knowledge on the subject. I have therefore preferred to base my method of treatment on themes rather than on authors, and in attempting the solution of each problem of the dream, I shall cite the material found in the literature of the subject. But as I have not succeeded in mastering the whole of this literature -- for it is widely dispersed and interwoven with the literature of other subjects -- I must ask my readers to rest content with my survey as it stands, provided that no fundamental fact or important point of view has been overlooked. In a supplement to a later German edition, the author adds: I shall have to justify myself for not extending my summary of the literature of dream problems to cover the period between first appearance of this book and the publication of the second edition. This justification may not seem very satisfactory to the reader; none the less, to me it was decisive.

The motives which induced me to summarise the treatment of dreams in the literature of the subject have been exhausted by the foregoing introduction; to have continued this would have cost me a great deal of effort and would not have been particularly useful or instructive.

For the interval in question -- a period of nine years -- has yielded nothing new or valuable as regards the conception of dreams, either in actual material or in novel points of view. In most of the literature which has appeared since the publication of my own work, the latter has not been mentioned or discussed; it has, of course, received the least attention from the so-called ‘research workers on dreams’, who have thus afforded a brilliant example of the aversion to learning anything new so characteristic of the scientist. ‘Les savants ne sont pas curieux’, said the scoffer, Anatole France.

If there were such a thing in science as the right of revenge, I, in my turn, should be justified in ignoring the literature which has appeared since the publication of this book.

The few reviews which have appeared in the scientific journals are so full of misconceptions and lack of comprehension that my only possible answer to my critics would be a request that they should read this book over again -- or perhaps merely that they should read it! And in a supplement to the fourth German edition which appeared in 1914, a year after I published the first English translation of this work, he writes: Since then, the state of affairs has certainly undergone a change; my contribution to the ‘interpretation of dreams’ is no longer ignored in the literature of the subject. But the new situation makes it even more impossible to continue the foregoing summary.

The Interpretation of Dreams has evoked a whole series of new contentions and problems, which have been expounded by the authors in the most varied fashions. But I cannot discuss these works until I have developed the theories to which their authors have referred. Whatever has appeared to me as valuable in this recent literature, I have accordingly reviewed in the course of the following exposition.

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About Dream Interpretation

The Scientific Literature of Dream-Problems

I shall begin by giving a short account of the views of earlier writers on this subject and of the status of the dream-problem in contemporary science; since in the course of this treatise, I shall not often have occasion to refer to either. In spite of thousands of years of endeavour, little progress has been made in the scientific understanding of dreams. This fact has been so universally acknowledged by previous writers on the subject that it seems hardly necessary to quote individual opinions.

The reader will find, in many stimulating observations, and plenty of interesting material relating to our subject, but little or nothing that concerns the true nature of the dream, or that solves definitely any of its enigmas.

The educated layman, of course, knows even less of the matter. The conception of the dream that was held in prehistoric ages by primitive peoples, and the influence which it may have exerted on the formation of their conceptions of the universe, and of the soul, is a theme of such great interest that it is only with reluctance that I refrain from dealing with it in these pages. I will refer the reader to the well-known works of Sir John Lubbock (Lord Avebury), Herbert Spencer, E. B. Tylor and other writers; I will only add that we shall not realise the importance of these problems and speculations until we have completed the task of dream interpretation that lies before us. A reminiscence of the concept of the dream that was held in primitive times seems to underlie the evaluation of the dream which was current among the peoples of classical antiquity.[1] They took it for granted that dreams were related to the world of the supernatural beings in whom they believed, and that they brought inspirations from the gods and demons. Moreover, it appeared to them that dreams must serve a special purpose in respect of the dreamer; that, as a rule, they predicted the future.

The extraordinary variations in the content of dreams, and in the impressions which they produced on the dreamer, made it, of course, very difficult to formulate a coherent conception of them, and necessitated manifold differentiations and group-formations, according to their value and reliability.

The valuation of dreams by the individual philosophers of antiquity naturally depended on the importance which they were prepared to attribute to manticism in general. In the two works of Aristotle in which there is mention of dreams, they are already regarded as constituting a problem of psychology. We are told that the dream is not god-sent, that it is not of divine but of daimonic origin.

For nature is really daimonic, not divine; that is to say, the dream is not a supernatural revelation, but is subject to the laws of the human spirit, which has, of course, a kinship with the divine.

The dream is defined as the psychic activity of the sleeper, inasmuch as he is asleep. Aristotle was acquainted with some of the characteristics of the dream-life; for example, he knew that a dream converts the slight sensations perceived in sleep into intense sensations (‰_÷one imagines that one is walking through fire, and feels hot, if this or that part of the body becomes only quite slightly warm‰_ª), which led him to conclude that dreams might easily betray to the physician the first indications of an incipient physical change which escaped observation during the day.[2] As has been said, those writers of antiquity who preceded Aristotle did not regard the dream as a product of the dreaming psyche, but as an inspiration of divine origin, and in ancient times, the two opposing tendencies which we shall find throughout the ages in respect of the evaluation of the dream-life, were already perceptible.

The ancients distinguished between the true and valuable dreams which were sent to the dreamer as warnings, or to foretell future events, and the vain, fraudulent and empty dreams, whose object was to misguide him or lead him to destruction. The pre-scientific conception of the dream which obtained among the ancients was, of course, in perfect keeping with their general conception of the universe, which was accustomed to project as an external reality that which possessed reality only in the life of the psyche. Further, it accounted for the main impression made upon the waking life by the morning memory of the dream; for in this memory the dream, as compared with the rest of the psychic content, seems to be something alien, coming, as it were, from another world. It would be an error to suppose that the theory of the supernatural origin of dreams lacks followers even in our own times; for quite apart from pietistic and mystical writers -- who cling, as they are perfectly justified in doing, to the remnants of the once predominant realm of the supernatural until these remnants have been swept away by scientific explanation -- we not infrequently find that quite intelligent persons, who in other respects are averse to anything of a romantic nature, go so far as to base their religious belief in the existence and co-operation of superhuman spiritual powers on the inexplicable nature of the phenomena of dreams (Haffner).

The validity ascribed to the dream life by certain schools of philosophy -- for example, by the school of Schelling -- is a distinct reminiscence of the undisputed belief in the divinity of dreams which prevailed in antiquity; and for some thinkers, the mantic or prophetic power of dreams is still a subject of debate. This is due to the fact that the explanations attempted by psychology are too inadequate to cope with the accumulated material, however strongly the scientific thinker may feel that such superstitious doctrines should be repudiated. To write a history of our scientific knowledge of the dream problem is extremely difficult, because, valuable though this knowledge may be in certain respects, no real progress in a definite direction is as yet discernible. No real foundation of verified results has hitherto been established on which future investigators might continue to build. Every new author approaches the same problems afresh, and from the very beginning.

If I were to enumerate such authors in chronological order, giving a survey of the opinions which each has held concerning the problems of the dream, I should be quite unable to draw a clear and complete picture of the present state of our knowledge on the subject. I have therefore preferred to base my method of treatment on themes rather than on authors, and in attempting the solution of each problem of the dream, I shall cite the material found in the literature of the subject. But as I have not succeeded in mastering the whole of this literature -- for it is widely dispersed and interwoven with the literature of other subjects -- I must ask my readers to rest content with my survey as it stands, provided that no fundamental fact or important point of view has been overlooked. In a supplement to a later German edition, the author adds: I shall have to justify myself for not extending my summary of the literature of dream problems to cover the period between first appearance of this book and the publication of the second edition. This justification may not seem very satisfactory to the reader; none the less, to me it was decisive.

The motives which induced me to summarise the treatment of dreams in the literature of the subject have been exhausted by the foregoing introduction; to have continued this would have cost me a great deal of effort and would not have been particularly useful or instructive.

For the interval in question -- a period of nine years -- has yielded nothing new or valuable as regards the conception of dreams, either in actual material or in novel points of view. In most of the literature which has appeared since the publication of my own work, the latter has not been mentioned or discussed; it has, of course, received the least attention from the so-called ‰_÷research workers on dreams‰_ª, who have thus afforded a brilliant example of the aversion to learning anything new so characteristic of the scientist. ‰_÷Les savants ne sont pas curieux‰_ª, said the scoffer, Anatole France.

If there were such a thing in science as the right of revenge, I, in my turn, should be justified in ignoring the literature which has appeared since the publication of this book.

The few reviews which have appeared in the scientific journals are so full of misconceptions and lack of comprehension that my only possible answer to my critics would be a request that they should read this book over again -- or perhaps merely that they should read it! And in a supplement to the fourth German edition which appeared in 1914, a year after I published the first English translation of this work, he writes: Since then, the state of affairs has certainly undergone a change; my contribution to the ‰_÷interpretation of dreams‰_ª is no longer ignored in the literature of the subject. But the new situation makes it even more impossible to continue the foregoing summary.

The Interpretation of Dreams has evoked a whole series of new contentions and problems, which have been expounded by the authors in the most varied fashions. But I cannot discuss these works until I have developed the theories to which their authors have referred. Whatever has appeared to me as valuable in this recent literature, I have accordingly reviewed in the course of the following exposition.

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Tryskelion Dream Interpretation

To dream that you are dreaming is usually the effect of excessive worry and in one dream the dreamer wakes up to find that things are all straightened out until, lo and behold, the sleeper finds it is yet another dream. It is not uncommon to have more than two levels to a dream, the main reason hear is fear and worry over life’s circumstances. There is no interpretation for this dream as it is not a symbol, it is condition of the state of the emotions of the dreamer.

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Encyclopedia of Dreams

To dream that you are dreaming is usually the effect of excessive worry and in one dream the dreamer wakes up to find that things are all straightened out until, lo and behold, the sleeper finds it is yet another dream. It is not uncommon to have more then two levels to a dream, the main reason hear is fear, and worry, over life’s circumstances. There is no interpretation for this dream as it is not a symbol, it is condition of the state of the emotions of the dreamer.

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

Greece Antiphon, a Greek living in the fourth century bc. wrote the first known descriptive book of dreams. It was designed to be used for practical and profes­sional interpretations. He maintained that dreams are not cre­ated by supernatural powers but natural conditions. In the second century ad a similar book was written by Anemidorus, a Greek physician who lived in Rome. He claimed to have gathered his infonnation from ancient sources, possibly from the Egyptian dream book dating from the second millennium bc. He may have used works from the Assurbanipal library, later destroyed, which held one of the most complete collec­tions of dream literature. Anemidorus classified dreams into dreams, visions, oracles, fantasies and apparitions. He identi­fied two classes of dreams: the somnium, which forecast events; and the insomnium, which are concerned with present matters.

For the somnium dreams Anemidorus gave a dream dictionary.

For example, he said abyss meant an impending danger, a dream of warning, and to see a candle being lighted forecasts a binh, to exhibit a lighted candle augers content­ment and prosperity, a dimly burning candle shows sickness, sadness and delay. This last interpretation is taken from folk­lore of the times and, because dreams tend to use commonly used verbal images, was probably true. He maintained that a person’s name—that is their identity, and the family, national and social background from which they arose—has a bearing on what their dream means.

Plato (429-347 bc) said that even good men dream of un­controlled and violent actions, including sexual aggression. These actions are not committed by good men while awake, but criminals act them out without guilt. Democritus said that dreams are not products of an ethereal soul, but of visual impressions which influence our imagination. Aristotle (383— 322 bc) stated that dreams can predict future events. Earlier Hippocrates, the ‘father of medicine’, discovered that dreams can reveal the onset of organic illness. Such dreams, he said, can be seen as illogically representing external reality.

Hippocrates was born on the island of Kos. On the island was the famous temple dedicated to Aesculapius, the god of medicine. There were about 300 such temples in Greece alone, dedicated to healing through the use of dreams. Hip­pocrates was an Aesculapian, and learnt his form of dream interpretation from them. In such temples the patient would ritually have to cleanse themselves by washing, and abstain from sex, alcohol and even food. They would then be led into what was sometimes a subterranean room with harmless snakes in—these were the symbol of the god. In the morning the patients were asked their dream, and it was expected they would dream an answer to their illness or problem. There are many attestations to the efficacy of this technique from pa­tients.

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

See science, sleep and dreams, fortress See house, buildings.

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

Over the years many theories to ex­plain the ‘why’ of dreams have been put forward. These range from dreams being messages from spirits; being results of food eaten prior to sleep; the mind freewheeling nonsensi­cally; the garbage disposal system of the mind; suggestions from waking experience; a computer reprogramming for the brain; to Freud’s wish fulfilment and Jung’s compensation theory.

If we do not argue any particular theory, however, then perhaps we see dreams as having a much wider function.

The most primal drives observable are survival, growth and repro­duction. Other urges, such as eating, social position, curiosity, are secondary.

The human animal appears to have survived and reproduced more capably after the development of self awareness, language and reasoning. With or without these, we remain an animal with a psychobiological nature. All ani­mals are known to dream. All animals share a certain situa­tion. They have an internal world out of which arises im­pulses (to eat, to mate, to avoid danger) and feeling reactions (anger, fear, anticipation). And they have an external world which confronts them with real survival dangers, sources of food, a mate, changes in environmental conditions.

A dream lies somewhere between these two worlds.

We can think of the human personality as being like a special son of cavity into which all these influences are dropped or are thrown. Physical sensations, internal drives and emotions, language, social rules, religious ideas; prompts to make decisions; news of war, massive media and advertis­ing information, are all dropped in.

The cavity has to deal with it, but as it is a mixture of things, many of which are in opposition, some sort of balance has to be kept. But how? And it cannot be simply a matter of throwing out all of one sort or aspect of things. Eradicating the memory of criticism might make us more calm, but it would limit the process of psychological growth, which has survival value.

Dreams can be seen to be connected with our survival and self regulating process. Because this involves all aspects of oneself and one’s experience, one cannot give dreams a single definition. They probably have many secondary functions, such as an interface to balance the internal and external influ­ences, to compensate between the inner needs and outer real­ity—a baby may miss its feed so, to cope with this primal need, it may dream of being fed. Traumatic or exterior danger­ous events, which cannot be processed immediately, can be stored and dealt with (experimented with or abreacted) while asleep. In higher mammals, infant traumas can be stored and dealt with in sleep when, or if, a stronger ego develops.

To meet the loneliness and isolation of consciousness’ or fears of death, the dream can link the waking self with its unconscious sense of unity or God.

To meet survival needs of primitive human beings prior to rational thought, the dream probably acted as a computer, synthesising experience and information, giving rise to creative solutions to hunting or social situations, presented as sleeping or waking imagery. This may explain why many pnmitive people say skills such as farming, weav­ing, writing, were told them by a vision of a god or goddess.

If we realise that the dream is an end product of a process which produces it, it enables us to see that the process’ (the survival function which regulates, compensates, links, prob­lem solves) can be accessed without meeting the dream. See sleep movements; dream process as computer; Adler; Freud; Jung.

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

Many experiments have been done using hypnosis in connection with dreams. In the early pan of this century Carl Schroetter hypnotised Miss E, a pharmacist, in an attempt to test Freud’s theory of symbol formation. He suggested Miss E would dream of having homosexual inter­course with a female friend, L.

The dream she subsequently reported was ‘1 sit in a small dirty cafe holding a tremendous French newspaper ...

A woman with a strong Yiddish ac­cent—L is Jewish—asks me twice, “Don’t you need any­thing?” I don’t answer . . . she comes a third time . . . I recognise her as my acquaintance. She holds a threadbare suitcase with a sticker on it that reads “For ladies only!” I leave the cafe with her . . . she hangs onto me which I find unpleasant but suffer it . . . Before her house she pulls out an enormous bunch of keys and gives one to me. “1 trust only you with it; it is the key to this case. You might like to use it. Just watch that my husband doesn’t get hold of it.” ‘ The dream contains several of the classical Freudian symbols of sex, such as the suitcase, the key and the phrase For ladies only’. Miss E had not, according to Schroetter, heard or read of Freud’s ideas.

Roffenstein, suspecting Miss E may have known something of Freudian ideas, chose ‘a 28-year-old, totally uneducated nursemaid of lower than average intelligence, who grew up and still lives in an uneducated milieu’. He suggested she dream of intercourse with her father. She reported: ‘I dreamt about my father, as if he had presented me with a great bag and with it he gave me a large key. It was a very large key. It looked like the key to a house. I had a sad feeling. I opened the bag. I snake jumped out against my mouth; I shrieked aloud.

More recent expenments are reponed by Woods and Greenhouse in New Wbrld of Dreams.

The suggestion was made to one subject that as a child she had wet the bed and her mother scolded her. That night she dreamt she fell into a pond in winter and her mother was angry.

An interesting aspect of these experiments is that another subject under hyp­nosis was told the dream and asked what it meant. Without hesitation she said. Oh, that girl must have wet the bed.’ This and other experiments suggest humans have an inherent, al­though perhaps unconscious, ability to understand the lan­guage of dreams.

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

To have a sense of personal existence distinct from others may be unique to human beings, and in large measure due to the learning of language. Jung and Neumann’s studies of the historical development of identity suggest, in an evolutionary sense, that having an T is still a very newly acquired function. This makes it vulnerable. It is also noticeably something which develops during childhood and reaches different levels of maturity during adulthood. Al­though it is our central experience, it remains an enigma—a will o’ the wisp, which loses itself in dreams and sleep, yet is so dominant and sure in waking.

In dreams, our sense of self—our ego, personality or iden­tity—is depicted by our own body, or sometimes simply by the sense of our own existence as an observer. In most dreams our T goes through a series of experiences, just as we do in waking life, seeing things through our physical eyes, touching with our hands, and so on. But occasionally we watch our own body and other people as if from a detached point of bodiless awareness.

If we accept that dreams portray in im­ages our conception of self, then dreams suggest that our identity largely depends upon having a body, its gender, health, quality, the social position we are bom into, and our relationship with others. In fact we know that if a person loses their legs, becomes paralysed, loses childbearing ability or is made redundant, they face an identity crisis. But the bodiless experience of self shows the human possibility of sensing self as having separate existence from the biological processes, one’s state of health and social standing. In its most naked form, the T may be simply a sense of its own existence, without body awareness.

Dreams also show our sense of self, either in the body or naked of it, as surrounded by a community of beings and objects separate from the dreamer, and frequently with a will of their own.

If we place the dreamer in the centre of a circle and put all their dream characters, animals and objects around them; and if we transformed these objects and beings into the things they depicted, such as sexuality, thinking, will emotions, intuition, social pressure, etc., we would see what a diverse mass of influences the ego stands in the middle of. It also becomes obvious that our T sees these things as outside itself in nearly all dreams. Even its own internal urges to love or make love may be shown as external creatures with which it has a multitude of ways to relate.

If we take the word psyche to mean our sense of self, then in our dreams we often see our psyche at war with the sources of its own existence, and trying to find its way through a most extraordinary adventure—the adventure of consciousness. One of the functions of dreams can therefore be thought to be that of aiding the survival of the psyche in facing the multitude of influences in life—and even in death.

See Individuation; dreamer.

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Dream Fairy

This dictionary of India, interpretation of dreams contains over 93 indexed entries.
Indian Interpretation of Dreams

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Strangest Dream Explanations

See Types of Dreams (Introduction.)

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

Although mind and body may be a total unity, and the separation in language merely a conve­nience, despite its unity our being has a number of interacting systems.

The action of the hean on the other systems is obvi­ous, and the influence of emotions on the organs is also be­coming obvious. What is not so well established is the impor­tance of the feedback occurring when we gain insight into our own functioning through understanding a dream. Although our being is already a self regulating system, the ability to turn consciousness inwards to make clear aspects of unconscious function appears to increase the efficiency of self regulation. This is shown in the first example of reptiles, lizards, snakes, where David finds a long-standing neck pain and goes through insight into its cause. In this way wc might be seen as a conscious organism which not only reprogrammes mental patterns or habits, but to some extent can renovate or change body efficiency as well. See dream analysis; dream process­ing; the Introduction.

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

One function of dreams is to bring aspects of our thinking or feeling, which may be ill defined, towards clarification. Foreign or strange language may therefore illustrate something which is being communi­cated to us from within, but is still not clear.

The uncon­scious, as in speaking in tongues—glossolalia—and of course in dreams, frequently moves towards clear awareness in stages.

The strange language is a halfway house, as is a dream.

If we bring focused attention to these, as explained in dream processing, the next step, clear verbal expression, can be reached. Speaking in language we are learning: the language is becoming habitual, making it possible to think in it. See speaking.

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Dreamers Dictionary

A Something unique, the beginning of a new event or project.

B Self-isolation, things hidden and not yet known.

C Matter that surrounds spirit, language, throat.

D Symbol for food and growth/development.

E Bridge between body and spirit, call for unity.

F Symbol for the outside and inner world, insight, hope, understanding.

G Weapon, staff, scepter—conquest and/or domination.

H Balanced, self-improvement.

I The human need for safety and severity.

J Adviser, admonishing or threatening index finger.

K Creative vitality, straightforward action, abundant energy.

L Reaching arm, striving for material and/or intellectual fortune.

M Mother, woman, fertility, creative energy.

N Masculine spirit stimulated by the feminine.

O The circle, insurmountable limits of fate.

P Mishaps, bad luck, accidents, disappointments, negative experiences.

Q The result of our action, our language.

R Male energy’, used to pursue our goals.

S Weapons, tools, techniques, and support.

T The cross, origin of your power/energy.

U The cup, the chalice, the passing of life/rime. Success, victory, the search for completeness.

W No specific symbols could be found, but possibly refers the ups and downs of life.

X The ten, checkmarks, crossing out.

Y The unknown, sometimes also sexual needs.

Z Risk decisions, lightning, electricity.

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Strangest Dream Explanations

Being conscious during the dream state represents a high level of mastery. You are realizing your ability to powerfully orchestrate your life that will help you achieve clarity and empowerment in your life.

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My Dream Interpretation

To dream that you are able to control the action in your dreams, indicates your growing confidence, high self-esteem and increasing skills. Alternatively, this type of dream may be a way of compensating for a waking situation in which you felt powerless.

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

It is reasonable and healthy for all of us to have a dream which surprises us or shocks us occasionally. As dreams partly deal with aspects of our urges and fantasies which we do not allow in waking life, such occasional dreams are safety valves. It is healthy to be able to allow a wide range of dream experience, from the holy to the deeply sexual; from outright aggression to tender love. In fact we gain an idea of the depth and broadness of our own soul—whether or not our psyche is narrow—from the range of dreams we experience.

If obscene dreams assail and worry us again and again, however, then there is a problem in the way we are relating to ourself and the exterior world. Psychotherapeutic counselling might help.

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

In attempting to put together the information gathered from viewing thousands of dreams—not simply at face value, but explored in depth through the emo­tions and direct associations of the dreamer—a philosophy or view of life arises. It suggests that our birth as a physical and psychological being is a paradox. We are unique, and at the same time a common undifferentiated person. Psychologically we have our identity out of the lives of thousands of humans who preceded us and left the gift of language, of music, an, of concepts and information. Our mental life, our consciousness, is in some very real way formed out of what they left from their life. Our consciousness has been hewn out of the rock of possibilities by the love, the struggle and pain, the endeavour and wit of their lives. Particularly our psyche has been shaped by or modelled on our parents, and the traces in their life, unknown though they may be, of their parents, backwards for many generations.

Our identity is given to us by the humans who raise us. This sense of self arises because we are treated as if we were a self. This, with language, is the creative matrix of our self awareness.

The giving of a name is therefore a miracle which acts as a nucleus around which the many mental connections can be made which form our self image. Perhaps this is why giving the name in baptism is seen as a holy rite in Chris­tianity.

Our conscious personality can live without ever becoming aware of its connections with other lives except as it meets them in everyday affairs. That its existence has depended upon what was given by countless other lives—that humans constantly create each other, consciously and unconsciously, through the dynamic flux of communication—might never be realised. That one’s own life is also a part of this creative process, this sea of living consciousness, might never be known. Nevertheless, each individual life constantly takes pan in the collective, negatively or positively. This is not a mystical thing, but is plainly observable. From the point of view of dreams, if our life has given nothing in deed, in love, in rearing of children, in ideas or art, or in common human­ity, we are dead—during life and afterwards. Giving and re­ceiving, kinship and symbiosis, growth and decay are the fun­damentals of the living process according to dreams.

At death, we face a very real end, a real death. There is no magical escape from this. All that we have been, all we have become, all we gathered and won is lost—finished. But the paradox occurs again. Dreams suggest that out of all we gave of ourself, out of all we received from the being of others, we are recreated in a realm of consciousness. This may mean that we continue as living influences in the lives of those who still live. But the suggestion is that something more than this oc­curs.

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Strangest Dream Explanations

See Types of Dreams (Introduction.)

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Strangest Dream Explanations

See Types of Dreams (Introduction.)

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

In psychodrama there is no in­terpretation’ of a dream.

The dreamer unravels the meaning of the dream by acting it out with the help of others.

The dreamer acts the main role of him or herself, and directs the helpers in the other roles. In dramatising and exploring the dream in this way, the obvious as well as the hidden meaning, associations and emotions are made clear.

To finish, the dreamer is encouraged to take the dream forward, altering it to what feels more adequate and satisfying. This gives the person opportunity to express and enact what was absent in the dream, and provides release from recurring dreams, and catharsis where necessary.

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

If we keep a record of our dreams it will soon become obvious that some of our dream themes, charac­ters or places recur again and again. These recurrences are of various types.

A cenain theme may have begun in childhood and continued throughout our life—either without change, or as a gradually changing series of dreams. It might be that the feature which recurs is a setting, perhaps a house we visit again and again, but the details differ. Sometimes a senes of such dreams begin after or dunng a particular event or phase of our life, such as puberty or marriage.

Example: ‘This dream has recurred over 30 years. There is a railway station, remote in a rural area, a central waiting room with platform going round all sides. On the platform mill hundreds of people, all men I think. They are all ragged, thin, dirty and unshaven. I know I am among them. I looked up at the mountainside and there is a guard watching us. He is cruel looking, oriental, in green fatigues. On his peaked cap is a red star. He carries a machine gun. Then I looked at the men around me and I realise they are all me. Each one has my face. I am looking at myself. Then I feel fear and terror (Anon.).

The theme of the dream can incorporate anxious emotions, such as the above example, or any aspect of experi­ence. One woman, an epileptic, reports a dream which is the same in every detail and occurs every night. In general such dreams recur because there are ways the dreamer habitually responds to their internal or external world. Because their attitude or response is unchanging, the dream which reflects it remains the same. It is noticeable in those who explore their dreams using such techniques as described under dream pro­cessing that recurring themes disappear or change because the attitudes or habitual anxieties which gave rise to them have been met or transformed.

A recurring environment in a dream where the other fac­tors change is not the same. We use the same words over and over in speech, yet each sentence may be different.

The envi­ronment or character represents a particular aspect of oneself, but the different events which surround it show it in the changing process of our psychological growth. Where there is no such change, as in the examples above, it suggests an area of our mental emotional self is stuck in a habitual feeling state or response.

Some recurring dreams can be ‘stopped’ by simply receiv­ing information about them. One woman dreamt the same dream from childhood. She was walking past railings in the town she lived in as a child. She always woke in dread and perspiration from this dream. At 40 she told her sister about it.

The response was ‘Oh, that’s simple. Don’t you remember that when you were about four we were walking past those railings and we were set on by a bunch of boys. Then I said to them, ‘Don’t hurt us, our mother’s dead!” They left us alone, but you should have seen the look on your face.’ After realis­ing the dread was connected with the loss of her mother, the dream never recurred. Another woman who repeatedly dreamt of being in a tight and frightening place, found the dream never returned after she had connected it to being in the womb.

Recurring dreams, such as that of the railings, suggest that pan of the process underlying dreams is a self regulatory (homocostatic) one.

The dream process tries to present trou­blesome emotions or situations to the conscious mind of the dreamer to resolve the trauma or difficulty underlying the dream.

An obvious example of this is seen in the recurring nightmare of a young woman who felt a piece of cloth touch her face, and repeatedly woke her family with her screams. Her brother, tiring of this, one night woke her from her screams and made her talk about her feelings. His persistence gradually revealed that she associated the cloth with the burial shroud of her grandmother. This brought to the surface grief and feelings about death she had never allowed herself to feel before.

The nightmare never returned. See nightmares; dream processing.

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Strangest Dream Explanations

See Types of Dreams (Introduction.)

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My Dream Interpretation

Recurring dreams can be highly useful and important to analyze. They happen for one of two reasons: (1) they reflect an unhealthy pattern that you have fallen into in real life, and they are trying to show you that your behaviour is not helping you be happy. Or, (2) they represent unresolved feelings, such as anger or sadness over a past situation that you have not healed from. In many recurring dreams, your sleeping self is trying to solve a problem - or confront an emotion - that you are unable to face in real life. Whatever the subject of your recurring dream is, you can be sure it is reflecting something in your current life situation, even if the dream takes you back in time. Use the Dream Dictionary to analyze the major symbols and events in your dream, to piece together its message. Think carefully about what in your life might be causing you continual stress or worry.

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The Premier in Dream Dictionary

Repetitive dreams are a clear message from our dreaming mind that we are stuck in a particular mind set or behavioural cycle. • If a dream continues to repeat itself, it is worth exploring it’s meaning as it needs your conscious understanding and action in order to resolve something in your emotional make-up. • Recurring dreams can be a trauma relieving response to the original event that triggered them.

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

In most ancient cultures, consider­ation and even veneration of dreams played a great pan. Some groups felt that dream life was more real and imponant than waking life. Not only were dreams looked to for information about hunting (Eskimo groups), but also for ways of healing physical and psychological ills (Greek dream temples) and insights into the medicinal properties of herbs, barks and clays (African tribal witchdoctors). Common to most of these groups, and evident in the Old Testament, was also the sense that through dreams one had awareness of the transcendental or supersensible. St Peter’s dream of the sheet and unclean animals was a turning point in the history of western socicty —as was Constantine’s dream of his victory if he used the symbol of Christianity.

At its most fundamental, the human religious sense emerges out of several factors. One is the awareness of ex­isting amidst external and internal forces of nature which cause us to feel vulnerable and perhaps powerless. Such natu­ral processes as illness, death, growth and decay, earthquakes, the seasons, confront us with things which are often beyond our ability to control. Considenng the information and re­sources of the times, one of religion’s main functions in the past was the attempted control of the ‘uncertain’ factors in human life, and help towards psychological adjustment to vali­ne rability. Religions were the first social programmes aiding the human need for help and support towards emotional, mental, physical and social health and maturity. Even if prim­itive, such programmes helped groups of people to gain a common identity and live in reasonable harmony together. Like a computer program which is specific to a particular business, such programmes were specific to a particular group, and so are outdated in today’s need for greater integra­tion with other races. Religions also offered some sort of con­cept of and connection with the roots of being.

Example: ‘For two nights running I have dreamt the same nightmare. I am in a chapel walking down the first flight of several flights of steps when I hear loud noises behind me. I am told to run, being warned of the soldiers who ride the cavalry horses nght down the steps, and who run you over if you are in their way.

The horses are fierce and they absolutely race down the steps at the same time every day, and you literally have to lock yourself away in a nearby room which is a long way down the chapel. I ran into the room hearing the pounding of the horses’ hooves. It was a terrible pandemo­nium in that chapel. In the room were school children the same age as me and some perhaps younger’ (Maria H). Maria, who is 16, in describing her dream says she had recently been confronted with whether to have a sexual relationship with her boyfriend. Religion, represented by the chapel, is Maria’s way of locking out her powerful sexual urges. Many dreams show that religion, as a set of beliefs, is used as a way of avoiding anxiety in the face of life’s uncertainties.

For many people, the rigid belief system helps them to avoid uncertainty in making decisions.

Dreams also portray and define the aspect of human expe­rience in which we sense a kinship with all life forms. This is the side of spiritual expenence through which we find a con­nection with the roots of our being. While awake we might see the birth of a colt and feel the wonder of emergence and newness; the struggle to stand up and survive, the miracle of physical and sexual power which can be accepted or feared. In looking in the faces of fellow men and women we see something of what they have done in this strange and painful wonder we call life. We see whether they have been crushed by the forces confronting them; whether they have become ngid; or whether, through some common miracle, they have been able to carry into their mature years the laughter, the crying, the joy, the ability to feel pain, that are the very signs of life within the human soul. These things are sensed by us all, but seldom organised into a comprehensive view of life, and an extraction of meaning. Often it is only in our dreams, through the ability the unconscious has to draw out the signif­icance of such widely divergent expenences, that we glimpse the unity behind phenomena which is an essential of spiritual life, i.e. we all have a life, we breathe, we have come from a mother, so share a universal experience.

Example: To quote J.B. Priestley from his book Rain Upon Godshill: ‘Just before I went to Amenca, dunng the exhausting weeks when I was busy with my Time Plays, I had such a dream, and I think it left a greater impression on my mind than any experience I had ever known before, awake or in dreams, and said more to me about this life than any book I have ever read.

The setting of the dream was quite simple, and owed something to the fact that not long before my wife had visiied the lighthouse here at St Catherine’s to do some bird ringing. I dreamt I was standing at the top of a very high tower, alone, looking down upon myriads of birds all flying in one direction; every kind of bird was there, all the birds in the world. It was a noble sight, this vast aerial river of birds. But now in some mysterious fashion the gear was changed, and time speeded up, so that I saw generations of birds, watched them break their shells, flutter into life, mate, weaken, falter and die. Wings grew only to crumble; bodies were sleek, and then, in a flash bled and shrivelled; and death struck every­where at every second. What was the use of all this blind struggle towards life, this eager trying of wings, this hurried mating, this flight and surge, all this gigantic meaningless ef­fort? As I stared down, seeming to see every creature’s ignoble little history almost at a glance, I felt sick at heart. It would be better if not one of them, if not one of us, had been bom, if the struggle ceased for ever. I stood on my tower, still alone, desperately unhappy. But now the gear was changed again, and the time went faster still, and it was rushing by at such a rate, that the birds could not show any movement, but were like an enormous plain sown with feathers. But along this plain, flickering through the bodies themselves, there now passed a sort of white flame, trembling, dancing, then hurry­ing on; and as soon as I saw it I knew that this white flame was life itself, the very quintessence of being; and then it came to me, in a rocket burst of ecstasy, that nothing mattered, nothing could ever matter, because nothing else was real but this quivering and hurrying lambency of being. Birds, men and creatures not yet shaped and coloured, all were of no account except so far as this flame of life travelled through them. It left nothing to mourn over behind it, what I had thought was tragedy was mere emptiness or a shadow show; for now all real feeling was caught and purified and danced on ecstatically with the white flame of life. I had never before felt such deep happiness as I knew at the end of my dream of the tower and the birds.’

Some Nonh American Indians developed the totem out of similar processes. In one generation a person might learn to plant a seed and eat the results. Later someone might see that through fertilisation more food was produced. Still later some­one found that by irrigating, still more improvement was made. No one individual was responsible for such vital cul­tural information, and the collective information is bigger than any one person, yet individuals can partake of it and add to it.

The totem represented such subtle realities, as it might in a modem dream; as Christ might in today’s unconscious. That older cultures venerated their collective information, and that modem humans seem largely apathetic to it, shows how our ‘religion’ has degenerated. Yet utilising the power of the unconscious to portray the subtle influences which impinge upon us, and building the information gained into our re­sponse to life, is deeply important.

With the growth of authoritarian structures in western reli­gion, and the dominance of the rational mind over feeling values, dreams have been pushed into the background. With this change has developed the sense that visionary dreams were something which ‘superstitious* cultural groups had in the past. Yet thoroughly modem men and women still meet Christ powerfully in dreams and visions. Christ still appears to them as a living being.

The transcendental, the collective or universal enters their life just as frequently as ever before. Sometimes it enters with insistence and power, because a too rational mind has led to an unbalance in the psyche—a bal­ance in which the waking and rational individuality is one pole, and the feeling, connective awareness of the uncon­scious is the other.

Although it is tempting to think of the transcendent as ethereal or unreal, the religious in dreams is nearly always a symbol for the major processes of maturing in human life. We are the hero/ine who meets the dangers of life outside the womb, who faces growth, ageing and death.

The awe and deep emotions we unconsciously feel about such heroic deeds are depicted by religious emotion.

See angel; Christ, rebirth and Devil under archetypes; church; evil; fish, sea creatures; example in whale under fish, sea creatures; heaven, hell; sweets under food; dream as spiritual guide. See also hero/ine; mass; masturbation; old; paralysis; colours; sheep under animals.

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

Considering that each of us has four or five periods of dreaming each night, most of our dreams are forgotten. But for people who observe family or friends regu­larly remembering a dream, and yet themselves are seldom if ever able to recall one, the question arises as to why such a wide divergence occurs.

There are many different reasons why dreams may be for­gotten.

The most obvious is that we do not give enough atten­tion to our dreaming process. When people become intrigued by what they might be dreaming, and develop a motivation to remember, they frequently start recalling several dreams a week. From this standpoint, the reason why some people have always remembered might be that they have always been ei­ther intrigued or anxious about their nightly dramas.

The way we rise in the morning has an effect upon this type of memory.

If our attention is immediately turned out­wards on waking, there is little hope of recalling a dream unless it has great power, as might a nightmare. Spending a few moments leaving our mind open to memory aids recall. Any visual, or even muscular activity, will fill consciousness with new and powerful impressions which might obliterate the subtler impressions of dreaming. Rorschach suggested not opening the eyes, and remaining physically still. Tests also showed that passage of time, even a few minutes, between dreaming and attempting to remember causes many dreams to fragment and be lost. So any attempts to remember need one to record the dream quickly, by speaking it to one’s bedmate, using a tape recorder by one’s bed, or writing it down.

Some dreams have rather misty or fragmentary imagery and theme, while others are clear, concise and dynamic. These latter are more easily remembered. There may be times when we sleep with longer periods of wakefulness, perhaps due to feeling cold, or uncomfonable in a strange bed, which cause us to remember as we are nearer consciousness. Be­cause dreams occur in cycles during the night, if something wakes us during a dream cycle the memory is easier, if only because less time has elapsed since occurrence. So another method of captunng a dream is to have one’s alarm gently sound prior to the time one usually wakes.

The last hour or so of sleep includes a long period of dreaming, so waking in this period with intent to remember can often capture the quarry.

Thereare also psychological reasons for forgetfulness. Dreams often deal with past areas of experience which we do not wish to remember, or would rather not be aware of.

If we find it difficult to feel emotions, or feel uncomfonable with them, it is highly likely we repress dream memory, as dreams have a base of high feelings. Experiments have shown that during dreaming our heartbeat, body movements and breath­ing frequently reflect intensified emotions. Also, research into what areas of the brain produce dreaming suggest that dreams may be from the ‘visceral brain’, which is largely non verbal.

If temperamentally we find feeling qualities a foreign lan­guage, connecting with a dream would need to be a learnt skill.

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Mystic Dream Book

This unusual dream signifies success after you have almost given up hope. Persevere !

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

In 1937 through the use of the electroencephalograph (EEG) measuring tiny electrical brain impulses, Loomis and his associates discovered that the form of brainwaves changes with the onset of sleep.

The next leap forward in understanding came when Aserinsky and Kleitman found rapid eye movements (REM) in 1953. In 1957 the REM were linked with dreaming. This defined sleep into two differ­ent observable states, REM sleep, and NREM (non-rapid eye movement or non-rem) sleep. Within NREM three different stages have been identified. These are defined by the different EEG patterns of electrical activity in the brain. They are mea­sured by the height (amplitude) of the brain waves and fre­quency of up and down movement. There are also electrical changes occurring in the muscles (measured using an electro- myograph or EMG), and in movement of the eyeballs (mea­sured using an electro-oculograph or EOG).

While awake the height is low and frequency fast. As we relax prior to sleep the EEG shifts to what are called alpha waves, at 8 to 12 cps (cycles per second). Stage one of sleep is the transition between this drowsy state of alpha waves to sleeping, in which theta waves occur, at 3 to 7 cps. In this first stage we experience random images and thoughts. This lasts about 10 minutes, followed by stage two, in which ‘sleep spindles’ occur which have 12 to 14 cps on the EEG. These last from 1/2 to 2 seconds, with K complexes following, which are slow large EEG waves. About half our sleep period is spent in this second stage of sleep. Deep sleep is reached when our brain exhibits delta waves, with 1/2 to 2 cps.

After approximately an hour and a half from falling into deep sleep, an exciting change occurs. We return to level two and REM occur. Suddenly the brain is alert and active, though the person is asleep and difficult to wake. This level has been called paradoxical sleep because of this fact. Voluntary mus­cular activity is suppressed and the body is essentially paralysed. Morrison has pointed out that, although the brain is transmitting full muscular activity messages, these are usu­ally suppressed by an area of the brain in the pons. But bursts of short actions occur, such as rapid eyeball jerks, twitches of the muscles, changes in the size of the pupil, contractions in the middle ear, and erection of the penis. It may be that similar excitation occurs in the vagina. Also, autonomic storms’ occur dunng which large erratic changes occur in heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate and in other auto­nomic nervous system functions. These are the changes ac­companying our dreams.

If we slept for eight hours, a typical pattern would be to pass into delta sleep, stay there for about 70 to 90 minutes, then return to stage two and dream for about five minutes. We then move back into delta sleep, stay for a short period and shift back to level two, but without dreaming, then back into level three.

The next return to stage two is longer, almost an hour, with a period of dreaming lasting about 19 minutes, and also a short period of return to waking. There is only one short period of return to stage three sleep which occurs nearly four hours after falling asleep. From there on we remain in level two sleep, with three or four lengthening periods of dreaming, and returns to brief wakefulness.

The average amount of body shifting is once every 15 minutes.

1- In undergoing 205 hours of sleep deprivation, four healthy males showed various physiological and psychological changes. Some of these were headache, lack of concentra­tion, hallucination, memory loss, tremor and, in some, paranoia. In all cases one night’s sleep restored normal functioning.

2- One in ten people who complain of excessive daytime drowsiness suffer from sleep apnoea, which is a stoppage of breathing while asleep.

3- A condition called narcolepsy causes sufferers to fall asleep at inappropriate times—while making love, walk­ing, playing tennis, working.

4- As we age we usually sleep less. Our REM sleep in partic­ular decreases sharply.

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Dream Dictionary Unlimited

An unresolved problem or an incomplete event of destiny; when resolved, the dreams will cease

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Dream Dictionary Unlimited

Revealing the unknown in order to better understand what not to accept

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Mystic Dream Book

A visit to a strange place will bring you fresh work.

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Mystic Dream Book

A sign of inherited money soon to come to you.

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The Bedside Dream Dictionary

The interpretation of seeing and interacting with a stranger, or strangers, in your dream depends on the details of your dream and on your personal belief system. Some Eastern cultures believe that the strangers in your dreams are spirits from another dimension. These spirits may be teaching you lessons or giving you specific messages.

The more modern approach to interpreting a dream with strangers in it is that they represent different sides or unfamiliar aspects of our personality.

The best way to tell is to “check inside” of yourself and simply try to understand the message of this dream. Whether the message is coming from your unconscious or from a different reality might be irrelevant.

The lessons gained through a dream are far more important then where they came from. Just remember: The mind that dreamt the dream also knows its source and meaning (and that is YOUR own mind). See also: People

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The Fabric of Dream

To see one a dream of honor and success.

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

Unknown aspect of oneself; pan we avoid meeting’ in everyday life.

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Little Giant Encyclopedia

Something new is announced.

The image can also point to the shadow (the stranger within), rejected or unknown characteristics in yourself that you don’t want to see. See Shadow.

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Dream Symbols and Analysis

To dream of a stranger represents an aspect or quality that you refuse to show to others. It may also be suggesting a solution or resolution for an issue that is causing you anxiety.

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Strangest Dream Explanations

To dream of a stranger symbolizes an aspect of yourself you haven’t met yet. That which is foreign can be judged at first as a threat, bad, or wrong. See Integration Dreams.

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Dream Meanings of Versatile

The stranger in a dream represents that part of ourselves that we do not yet know. There may be a feeling of awe or of conflict with which we need to deal before we can progress. Also consult shadow in the introduction.

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My Dream Interpretation

Dreams in which a stranger brings you an important message represent your unconscious mind telling you what you need to hear. This dream can also represent your feelings about someone you love who has died.

If you dream of being in love with a stranger in your dream, especially if the dream is recurring, your heart is longing for a true love to call your own.

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Psycho Dream Interpretation

If you dream of a stranger dressed in a cloak, it is a desire to die.

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The Language of Dreams

(see Crowd, Men, Women) Freudian: Unsatisfied or unrecognized libido; repressed emotions.

Situational: Think back to see if you met someone recently who made a stronger impression than initially realized.

A part of yourself with which you have remained unfamiliar.

Does the stranger say anything? This may be an important observation, insight, or question to ponder. Strangers are sometimes easier to talk to because they have no personal involvement in our situations, so your subconscious may personify itself through such images.

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The Complete Dream Book

You will meet new and valuable friends if you dream of coming in contact with strangers.

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Mystic Dream Book

A dream of contrary.

If you dream of Strangers, the more of them the better, it means the assistance of kind friends, who will help you on in life.

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Islamic Dream Interpretation

It must be borne in mind that the most authentic dreams are the ones observed in the latter part of the night and during Qayloolah (sleeping at midday ) and during the day. Dreams during the fruit-ripening season and fruit-selling season are also very potent.

The most inopportune time wherein dreams hardly have any significant meaning is during the winter season and when rain is imminent.

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Islamic Dream Interpretation

It must be borne in mind that the most authentic dreams are the ones observed in the latter part of the night and during Qayloolah (sleeping at midday ) and during the day. Dreams during the fruit-ripening season and fruit-selling season are also very potent.

The most inopportune time wherein dreams hardly have any significant meaning is during the winter season and when rain is imminent.

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Strangest Dream Explanations

Venting dreams represent your subconscious mind’s attempt to assist you with the process of cleaning out the old in order to make room for the new. You may be playing out a a frightening or anxiety provoking scenario in order to come to terms with how you would handle it, or to conquer it. Venting dreams usually occur as nightmares or frightmares, anxiety dreams that leave you feeling shaken up. Venting dreams are showing you what we are ready to release. See Types of Dreams (Introduction).

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About Dream Interpretation

Dreams! What do they mean? You probably recognize a connection between the dream world and the “real” world, but did you know that you can actually do things to nurture your dream life? The bulk of this intriguing volume is an alphabetical directory of the psychological and mystical meanings of various dream symbols, from angels to zoos.

For example, if you are chased in your dream, this will show a sense of insecurity. Dreams Interpreted, each page reveals the fantastic meanings of quotidian objects and occurrences that surface in your reveries. Make a note of it when you wake up so you do not forget your dream.

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A Guide to Dreams and Sleep Experiences

Having written a dream down, by using highlighting pens to make all matching words the same colour, one can immediately see the main issues in some dreams.

Example: ‘We walk around, go upstairs, and I notice a staircase leading to a room or rooms. It goes up square, about eight steps in a flight, but round and round—spiral. I am scared by them, don’t want to go up, but am curious. We move in and nobody but myself has really taken any notice of the stairs. Nobody has been up . In one dream I try to go up but the children are scared for me. They plead, ‘Don’t go up Mum, just forget them”. Then I wake. In the next dream I wait till they are asleep. Half way up_ I am terrified but have to go on. Then I wake. Next dream I got up there. Then I woke’ (Ann H). Ann’s dream theme recurs, so is important to her. In marking just some of the words we see that the ‘up’ or go up’ is important. Childhood fears hold Ann back for a while, but she dares to climb.

If we look at the entries for climb and stairs, we see they depict taking steps towards ex­ploring the unknown, daring to explore one’s potential or opportunities.

By marking the words in this way we might also highlight certain statements otherwise hidden in the dream. Particularly watch out for the connections with the word T, such as I want, I do, I will, I have, I know, I cannot, etc. Example: ‘1 want to withdraw.’ I was full of sadness but was trying not to show it.’ ‘1 felt keyed up and ready to fight.’ Taking such statements out of context and looking for connections with everyday feelings oi situations often throws considerable light on the dream.

If what you realise is then considered in con­nection with the plot of the dream, the viewpoint your uncon­scious has on the situation might become evident.

For in­stance, the statement ‘I felt keyed up’ occurred within a classroom, and helped the dreamer understand the anger gen­erated at school. See amplification; plot of the dream; the comments on dream processing in the Introduction; dream processing; postures, movement, body language; settings; symbols and dreams.

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New American Dream Dictionary

1. Reverse: happiness, contentment.

2. Feeling as if a friend has been lost.

3. Domestic difficulties.

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